The maths behind packing objects like those in a jar of sweets was first studied by Johannes Kepler in 1606, after being asked by Sir Walter Raleigh about the stacking of cannonballs on the decks of his ships. The mathematical history of packing objects has been found to be much harder than anyone had anticipated. The subject area is now called Granular Matter and covers a vast range of materials, from the packing of domestic products to industrial processes involving the movement of grains and pellets. A greater understanding of how granular matter moves, twists, spins and breaks is the key to how cost savings can be made during the production process. Yet granular mathematics is still not fully understood and is an area of ongoing research and development. Show Granular Matter theory then tells us that on average a jar of mixed shapes will have about a 30% air gap in between the sweets. This percentage value will of course vary depending on the shape of the sweet. For example, an unshaken jar of spherical shaped sweets will have a gap of 39%, but if you gently shake them a few times this will drop to 35%. For a jar with 6 sweets along both the width and length of the base and a depth of 15 sweets you would need to calculate 6x6x15=540. Then to take account of the gap in between the sweets, reduce this total by thirty percent 0.70×540 giving an answer of 378 sweets in the jar. Here is a puzzle for you to try: If a jar has approximately 4 sweets along the width, 5 along the length and a depth of 12 sweets, how many sweets are in the jar? Counting cards at the casino may pay out more than counting candies in a jar, although a close goodie guesstimate could still win you a sweet prize at the county fair. But just how do you estimate a figure for all the candies you can't see in the inner part of the jar, especially if they vary in size? Researchers at New York University (N.Y.U.) may finally have the answer to this classic mathematical puzzle. Using transparent, fluorescently labeled oil droplets in water, the physicists looked beyond the outermost layer of spherical particles within the container—the only layer visible when looking from the outside—to spy on the geometric behavior inside. The resulting formula, which simply requires the sizes of the particles and the container as inputs, could make fair officials nervous. "You give us the distribution of sizes, and we can tell you how it will pack," says Jasna Brujic, who led the project. Brujic and her colleagues at N.Y.U.'s Center for Soft Matter Research used their 3D oil–water model to determine that bigger particles, when packed in a container holding a combination of sizes, made more contacts with neighbors than smaller ones. That much was intuitive, Brujic says, given their larger surface area. What was more surprising was that the average number of contacts for a particle within any mixed container was always six. This number, she explains, maintains mechanical stability. The researchers also knew from previous work that randomly packed identical spheres fill up about 64 percent of the volume in a given container. But Brujic's team was the first to describe how that proportion, or density, grows when the spheres vary in size; smaller ones can fill in voids that larger ones can't. So, what should a contestant do if he or she wants to guess at the number of candies in a jar, but lacks the complicated formula and a handy computer? "First, estimate the size of the jar," instructs Brujic. "Then look to see if all the candies are the same size. If they are, take 64 percent of that volume and divide it by the size of the candy to get the total number that would randomly fit inside. If they aren't equally sized, divide a slightly larger area, around 70 percent, by the average size of the candies." The team's experiments were all based on spherical particles, so Brujic notes that corrections are needed when generalizing to other shapes. Counting jellybeans would be more complicated than gumballs, for example. The applications for this finding extend well beyond the fairgrounds—ranging from aiding oil extraction to filling vending machines to creating a paint that dries faster or a pill that is easier to swallow. Brujic, however, returns to the candy model with her big business idea: "If you want to make the most money as a sweetmaker, you could tune the size distribution to get a small density," Brujic says. Or, for the more generous candymaker, the reverse could work: "If you are a Charlie and the Chocolate Factory manufacturer, you could find a way to fit the most chocolates in your bag." She is considering asking confectioner Mars, Inc., for her next grant. The study was published in the latest issue of the journal Nature. (Scientific American is part of the Nature Publishing Group.) ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S)Lynne Peeples is a freelance science journalist based in Seattle. How do you guess how many sweets are in a jar?An approximate method to calculate the number of sweets in a jar, is to multiply the number along the width and length of the base by the number of sweets in the height of the jar. Granular Matter theory then tells us that on average a jar of mixed shapes will have about a 30% air gap in between the sweets.
How many sweets are in a jar competition?Simply fill a large jar or other seethrough container with a collection of appealing sweets. Ask the children to guess the number of sweets and write their guess down, with their name. When everyone has guessed, tip out the sweets and count them. The child who guessed closest wins the lot.
How many candies are in the jar game?Guess How many Candies are in the Jar is a fun game where guests guess the number of candies in the jar. Whoever gets closest is the winner. Display 8x10 inch sign at your baby shower, and use 5x3. 5 inch game cards for guessing the number of candies.
How do you play candy jar guessing game?Candies Guessing Game
Fill a jar with candies, candy bars, candy corn or popcorn. Have each guest write down their best guess as to how many candies are in the jar. Announce the winner at the end of the party.
