Which sentence provides the best supporting evidence for the claim human bodies

Factors to Consider About your Audience: age, education level, occupation, gender, ethnicity, religion, political persuasion, hobbies/interests, socio-economic status, relationship to you

C = Code (How do I adapt to my audience?

Two Parts

1. Tone: what attitude will I express about my topic--

            a. Diction: what words will I choose?

            b. Syntax: how will I structure my sentences to create a mood?

2. Strategy: what mode of writing will best suit my purpose and audience?

            a. narration/description

            b. cause-effect

            c. compare-contrast

            d. argument-persuasion

E = Experience (From what experiences will I draw to develop my topic?)

            a. personal experience

            b. other people's experiences (interviews, polls, surveys)

            c. research (books, periodicals, internet)

S = Self/Persona (How will I hope to come across to my reader?

            a. academic/formal

            b. informal/friendly

            c. sarcastic

            d. aggressive

            e. compassionate

            f. humorous


Introduction to Argument-Persuasion Writing


Argument: to convince through the use of reason/logicPersuasion: to convince through the use of emotion/feeling

What Makes a Strong Argument-Persuasion Essay?

1. Effective Claim Statement (previously called a thesis)

    Types of Claims

        a. Claim of Fact: asserts that a condition has existed, exists, or will exist. To support--use factual evidence that is sufficient, reliable, and appropriate.

Examples-- Teens who engage in promiscuous, unprotected sex will develop STDs, become pregnant, and/or contract AIDS.

Smoking is an addiction that people are genetically predisposed to.

Three Dangers with Claims of Fact:

  1.  Might be too obvious of a fact (Welfare exists in CA.)
  2.  Might not contain enough emotion (persuasion)
  3.  Might be too universal/broad (To fix, add a qualifier--"Some teens...)

        b. Claim of Value: makes a judgment (subjective); expresses approval or disapproval about something; attempts to show that something is wrong/right, moral/immoral, beautiful/ugly. To support--you must establish standards that you are using to measure the beauty or morality of your topic

Examples--Homosexuality is immoral  because it violates religious, societal, and biological standards.

Monet's art is more beautiful than Picasso's because of its use of soft color, uplifting subject matter, and unique technique.

        c. Claim of Policy: argues that something SHOULD/SHOULD not be done, believed, banned...;argues for a course of action. Also called the Problem-Solution technique. To support--you must first convince the audience that a problem exists and then prove that your policy will fix it.

Examples--Uniforms SHOULD be required at all public high schools. (First show the reader how awful the schools are now, and then explain how your policy would be implemented and how it would work.


What Makes a Strong A-P Essay?

1. Effective Claim Statement

2. Defining Major Terms

Ways to Define

Using Synonyms (too vague on its own)

            Example: Pornography is obscene, salacious, lewd.

Using Examples/Ostensive Definitions (not comprehensive enough on its own)

            Example: Penthouse and XXX movies are examples of porn.

Using Stipulation--setting forth your own reasonable definition that fits the context of your paper.

      How to Stipulate (Three Parts)

  1. Identify the Term
  2. Classify the Term
  3. Attribute Special Characteristics to the term


Pornography is anything seen, heard, experienced, or read that contains explicit sexual actions which are demeaning/degrading to women and/or children to satisfy the base pleasures of men.


Pornography is anything...that artistically depicts the male or female body engaging in erotic acts.Art is anything seen, heard, experienced or read that evokes some intense reaction in the viewer.


Art is anything ...that is pleasing to the eye.

The most effective definitions will be a combination of all three techniques. They will begin with a one sentence stipulation, and then be followed by three or four sentences containing examples and synonyms for the term.


Description: using language that appeals to the senses in order to create a visual representation of what it is you are defining. This works best with defining places, like heaven or hell. Define it by explaining what it looks like, feels like, smells like, sounds like, and tastes like.Negation: defining something by showing what it is NOT or what it should NOT be (also called sarcasm) Consider Jonathan Swift's essay "A Modest Proposal" which argues that the way to combat famine in Ireland is to eat children--to breed them for baking, broiling, roasting, etc. Fortunately, he was NOT being serious; he was merely trying to emphasize the seriousness of the problem and how some form of drastic solution was required.

In Gorman's essay "The Doctor Won't See You Now," he seems to present a claim that doctors should "not have to treat any poor slob who comes to them...especially those who are old and on the way out anyway...or smokers, drinkers."

Just as one might be thinking that he is a real bastard for being so cruel, we then read something almost funny; he says doctors should not have to treat "anyone who writes a lot of trash about ethics and responsibility"(just as he is doing) or "anyone who has sex more often than I do."  Now we know that he can't be serious. These lines of absurdity are clear hints that he is not being serious, but he is making a poignant point about what doctors should NOT be like.

                    Benefits of Negation:

shock valueoriginalitydraws attention to some aspects of reality that are often hard to accept (like how poor and hungry a country might be)


What Makes a Strong Argument-Persuasion Essay?

  1. Effective Claim Statements

    2.   Defining Major Terms

    Synonyms    Examples (Ostensive)    Stipulation    Description    Negation

    3.   Acceptable Assumptions/Warrants

            Assumption/Warrant: unexamined but believed belief (a statement/idea that is accepted as given, needing no further proof). Warrants often act as bridges between support and claims.


Claim: Pre-marital sex is wrong. (COV)

Support: The Bible says so.

Warrant: Bible is authentic/credible.    This would not be an acceptable assumption, so one other component would have to be added---

Backing: Proof that the Bible is credible, has authority.

Types of Assumptions/Warrants

1. Authoritative: based on the credibility of the source


            Claim: Adoption of a vegetarian diet leads to a healthier life. (COF)

            Support: The authors of Vegetarian Lifestyles say so.

            Warrant: Authors are credible.

            Backing: proof that the authors can be trusted (use their credentials)

2.  Substantive: based on beliefs about the reliability and verifiability of factual evidence


            Claim: Maryanne is mentally deficient. (COF)

            Support: She cannot understand Tolstoy's War and Peace.

           Warrant: Maryanne is at an age where she can read, and anyone who cannot understand War and Peace is deficient.

            This would be an unacceptable assumption.

3. Motivational: based on the needs and values of the audience.


            Claim: Laws making marijuana illegal should be repealed. (COP)

            Support: People should have a right to use any substance they wish.

            Warrant: Laws should not prevent citizens from exercising their freedoms because people (audience) value freedom/autonomy.


What Makes a Strong A-P Essay?

  1. Effective Claim
  2. Defining Major Terms
  3. Acceptable Assumptions
  4. Argument of Evidence vs. Assertion

Criteria For Strong Evidence

All evidence must be:

        Relevant/Timely (Unified)        Adequate (at least three major supporting points)        Representative of the scope of your claim

                EXAMPLE CLAIM: Going to college immediately following high school is the most effective way to become a successful adult.  (COF)

                POOR EVIDENCE (only applies to YOUR experiences): When I graduated high school, I went to SCC and immediately started making business contacts.  I was able to get my first full-time job in the administration office.....

        Dramatic (emotional--appeal to story-telling and the use of adjectives and adverbs)        Accurate (limited biased, not exaggerated, not taken out of context)        Specific (names, dates, credentials...)        Varied


5.     Using Sound Reasoning

Types of Reasoning

1. Inductive: specific evidence/data leads to a general conclusion

        Example: I have a runny nose. My joints hurt. I am coughing. Therefore, I have a cold.   (A + B + C = Z)

2. Deductive: begin with a general conclusion and work down to specific points that follow from that conclusion.

    Formula for Deduction (also called a Syllogism)

MAJOR PREMISE (A):  Makes a general statement about a large group

MINOR PREMISE (B):  Makes a statement about a specific member of the group

CONCLUSION (Z): Provides a statement about the relationship between the member and the group to which he belongs.

        Example:  A--Presidents cheat on their wives.

                            B--Bill Clinton was President.

                            Z--Bill Clinton cheated on his wife.


                            A--Conservative Republicans are pro-life and pro-capital punishment.

                            B--Marla is a Conservative Republican.

                            Z--Marla is pro-life and pro-death penalty.

What Makes Reasoning Sound?

1. Valid Form:  A and B  (and C and D...) must lead to Z (conclusion).

            If all Presidents behave this way and if Bill was President, then must he have behaved this way too?

2. True and Sufficient Content: A and B (and C and D...) must all be true (verifiable) and they must be sufficient enough to prove the conclusion (Z)  is true. 

            Is it true that all Presidents cheat on their wives or that all Conservative Republicans are pro-life and pro-death penalty?


What Makes a Strong A-P Essay?

  1. Claims
  2. Definitions
  3. Assumptions
  4. Evidence
  5. Sound Reasoning

6.  Balance of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos

Logos: (from the Greek "word")the logical/factual part of the essay (statistics, facts, studies, expert opinion)Pathos: (from the Greek "suffering") the emotional part of the writing; appeals to readers' values, opinions, attitudes, feelings; usually causes the reader to act. The two most effective emotional responses from an audience are--



 How to establish pathos:

                Picturesque Language: language specifically designed to create a picture/image in the reader's mind by appealing to the senses

                Connotation vs. Denotation: Denotation means the literal (dictionary) meaning of words; connotation refers to the meanings that have bee attached to words by society (positive or negative). Writers must carefully select words that convey the appropriate response.

               Examples: "House" is a neutral term for where we live, but "home" creates a more positive feeling.  "Police officer" is fairly neutral, yet "Peace officer" is more flattering and "cop" sounds unappealing.

Ethos: (from the Greek "character")  the credibility of the author (you)

How to establish ethos:

  1. have a fitting, consistent tone
  2.  use credible sources (with limited bias, convincing data and current information)
  3. raise and refute opposing views


Step 7

Raising Opposing Views Structure

Eachrepresents a new paragraph

Introduction: Attention-getter (quote, story, statistic, questions); Background information to set up the problem; Claim Statement (6-8 sentences)

Example: Condoms should be distributed in public high school clinics

Definitions: Use stipulation plus examples, descriptions, synonyms, negation to define major terms

Example: Define distribution and clinic

Raise Three Opposing Views to your own Claim

Example: Despite the need for condom distribution in high schools, many argue against such a policy. First, some believe that this would promote sex...Furthermore, others contend that it is the parents' job to discuss/distribute condoms. Finally, those opposed to condom distribution assert that it is immoral.

Refute Opposing View #1

Example: Even though opponents claim that distribution encourages sex,.....INSERT YOUR LOGOS to how that it doesn't

Refute Opposing View #2

Example: Opponents might believe that parents educate kids about sex; however,...INSERT LOGOS to show that they don't

Refute Opposing View #3

Example: Although several groups might suggest that condom distribution is immoral,... INSERT LOGOS to show that STD's, AIDS, and unwanted pregnancies are more immoral.

Extra Supporting Evidence (optional)

If any other evidence remains that helps to prove your claim, put it here.

Conclusion: Restate your claim; summarize your points; make a prediction; provide a call to action for the reader; refer back to your introduction attention-getter

Step 8 :Revisions

Logical Fallacies

1. Ad ignorantium: falsely assumes that something is true because you cannot prove that it is false (or vice versa)

Example: There is no God because you cannot prove   that there is. OR There is a God because you cannot prove that there isn't

2. Card Stacking: Selective reporting only the positive data, ignoring the negative

Example: Bill Clinton was a great President because of the strong economy he created and his effective domestic policies (but we ignore the fact that he was impeached for contempt)

3. Hasty Generalization: drawing a conclusion from too little evidence

 Example: Santa Claus is fat and jolly; my dad is fat and jolly...therefore, all fat people must be jolly.

4. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc (Post Hoc): falsely assumes that just because two events happen close together in time, there is a cause-effect relationship.

Example: I get a stomach ache just as my best friend calls; therefore, her call must have given me the stomach ache.

5. Ad Hominem: attacking the person on irrelevant grounds instead of attacking his position. Also called "Mudslinging"

Example: We can't trust the mayor because he wears stained suits that don't match his shoes.

6. Genetic Fallacy: attacking something based on its creator

Example: After finding out that Thomas Jefferson slept with his slaves and had several illegitimate children, we couldn't possibly trust the Declaration of Independence

7. Bandwagon: appeals to peer pressure rather than logic. Also called "everybody's doing it" fallacy

Example: I will vote Republican because my father does and my grandfather, and my uncle, and niece...

8. Red Herring: arguing outside the point; going off on a tangent

Example: The topic of the paper is about the ethics of cloning humans and you begin to discuss cloning plant life for greater harvests.

9. Tu Quoque: falsely assuming that two wrongs do make a right

Example: It is okay that I cheat on my taxes; my own accountant does.

10. Begging the Question: having unacceptable assumptions

Example: Using the Bible to prove that fornication is wrong without showing the validity of the text

11. Glittering Generalities: using attractive sounding language that is intentionally vague

Example: A vote for me is a vote for Democracy! Let's celebrate freedom!

12. Questionable authority: assuming that the reader will trust your sources without proper proof

Example: Studies show that crime is up in LA. Experts agree that rap music is the cause.

13. False Analogy: comparing two things that have some similarities but ignoring major differences.

Example: A thief is life a fetus; both of them are intruding, they are both stealing something (possessions of victim vs. strength of woman), and sometimes, they are both unwelcome; therefore, because a homeowner has the right to get rid of a thief from her home, a mother has the right to abort a fetus.   Major Ignored Difference--the fetus did not willfully "break into" the mother.

14. False Dilemma: falsely assuming that there are only two possibilities and no compromise. Also called the "Either/or Fallacy.

Example: We either bomb Iraq into oblivion or we let them suffocate us with their control over our oil supply.

15. Non-sequitur: the conclusion does not follow from the evidence

Example: She is a good school principal; therefore, she will be a good governor.

16. Slippery Slope: falsely assuming that one thing will lead to another, and another and another....

Example: If we legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes, then we will have to legalize cocaine and LSD and crack...


Possible Structures for Writing Essay #1

1. Claim of Fact Essays

Use the standard five paragraph essay format:



attention-getter/hookclaim statement: Curfews should be implemented in all California cities.


use stipulation to explain any unclear terms from your claim--     A curfew would mean that any person under eighteen would not be allowed out in public settings after 10 PM during week nights unless it was for emergency purposes or with parental consent.


state one reason why curfews should be implemented and provide necessary evidence--It would reduce drug and alcohol use among teens


state a second reason why curfews are needed with evidence--It would reduce the amount of teen sex


state a third reason--It would reduce violence and crimes associated with teen behavior.


2. Claim of Value Essay


attention-getter/hookclaim statement: History will remember Jesse Jackson as a better civil rights leader than Martin Luther King Jr.Identify the standards you are using to make your value judgment: because he demonstrates superior qualities of charisma, determination, and vision.


Identify the first standard and explain how Jesse was more charismatic


Identify the second standard and prove that Jesse has more determination


Identify the third standard and prove that Jesse has more vision


3. Claim of Policy Essay

(not a typical intro and concluding paragraph)

FIRST SECTION OF THE ESSAY (possibly three paragraphs?)

Provide information to set up the problem; show the reader (through facts, studies, expert opinion) that a problem exists--something is seriously wrong with....

SECOND SECTION OF THE ESSAY (possibly another three or more paragraphs)

State your Claim: Identify the policy that will fix the problemExplain how your policy will be implemented Prove that your policy will help fix the problem


Step 9: The Research Process--Taking Notes on and Pulling information out of texts

Quoting (do not quote more than 20% of your essay, and only quote for the right reasons:

            to capture experts' opinions

            to cite memorable/beautiful language

            to keep a phrase concise and accurate

Summarizing (taking the main idea out of a chapter or passage)Paraphrasing (changing the words and the style/format of sentences--it needs to sound like YOU and not like the source)

Step 10: Documenting Your Sources Using MLA

In-text parentheticals (Author's Last Name Page).

End-Text Citations (Works Cited)


Step 11: Create an Effective Title


 1.                        Declarative

�       Organ Donations

�       Stem Cell Research

�       Prayer in School

2.                        Author�s Declarative

�       Heroic Organ Donors

�       A Vote for Prayer in School

3.                        Colon Title

�       Organ Donations: The Gift of Life

�       Stem Cells: The Promise of Modern Science

�       Prayer in School: A Constitutional Right

4.                        Humorous/Sarcastic

�       Is Big Brother Watching? Let Us Pray

5.                        Question

�       Can the Children Bow Their Heads?

�       What are Embryos For?

6.                        Alliterative

�       Doing One�s Duty--Donating

�       A Sanctuary for The Sick: Stem Cell Research

�       Permission to Pray Please

7.                        Pun

Please Pass the LiverIs There a Doctor in the Big House?Baby BoothersMoby Dick: A Whale of a NovelRise and Whine


How to Analyze Someone Else's Argument



Identify the author and "title of essay being analyzed"

Identify the author's claim and provide a brief summary of essay

*State your claim: What is your overall assessment of the essay? Does it prove its point?

Body Paragraphs (Three)

Pull out one element from the essay to critique

Pull out a second element

Pull out a third element

Elements to Look for include:

  1. What is the effectiveness of the author's claim/purpose?

  2. Does the author forget to clearly define major terms?

  3. Are there any unacceptable assumptions being used? Is he/she begging the question?

  4. What is the strength of the evidence (logos)? Is it sound?

  5. Is there a balance of logos, pathos and ethos?

  6. Can the writer be trusted? Is his writing credible-sounding? Does he raise any opposing views? (ethos)

  7. Are there any logical fallacies?

  8. Does the overall structure of the essay flow well (coherence)?

  9. How effective are the introduction and concluding paragraphs?

  10. What is the author's persona? Is he being too defensive? Too bitter? Too sarcastic? Too aggressive? Too weak?

  11. How powerful is the title of the essay?


Restate your claim

Summarize your major points

Make a suggestion about how the essay could be improved overall


Comparative Analysis

Definition: Comparing two essays written on the same topic to assess which presents a stronger case (not which one you happen to agree with)

Two Structures for Analysis

Essay #1--A

Essay #2--B

Block Method


        Identify A and B by author and title

        Briefly summarize A and B and identify each one's claims

        Present your claim: A>B or B>A  (which is the better argument?)

Body Paragraphs




(identify three strong or weak elements of A)




(identify three strong or weak elements of B)


Alternating Method


(same as above)

Body Paragraphs

One element (i.e. Logos)

A versus B

Another element (i.e. Pathos)

A versus B

A third element (i.e. ethos)

A versus B



Your job for Essay #3 is to write a comparative analysis in which you argue that one essay does a superior job to another, both arguing the same position, one in favor of and one against.

What kind of evidence best supports reasons in an argument?

What kind of evidence best supports reasons in an argument? All evidence should be reliable and varied, using personal experiences only when relevant. All evidence should be empirical and scientifically proven in order to be more persuasive.

Which statement best describe an effective claim in an argumentative essay?

Hence, an effective claim in an argumentative essay will be a true statement that is not hypothetical and can be proved with the help of evidence and facts. Facts can never be denied or encountered. They are not debatable at all.

What is the most important reason to cite evidence in an argumentative essay?

The main reason for citing your sources is to give credit to those authors whose ideas you used in your research.

Why is this excerpt an example of a strong argument quizlet?

Why is this excerpt an example of a strong argument? It provides a citation as evidence to support the claim. It states a counterclaim and demonstrates why it is incorrect.